[ruby-talk:444097] Ruby 3.2.0 Released

We are pleased to announce the release of Ruby 3.2.0. Ruby 3.2 adds
many features and performance improvements.

## WASI based WebAssembly support

This is an initial port of WASI based WebAssembly support. This
enables a CRuby binary to be available on a Web browser, a Serverless
Edge environment, or other kinds of WebAssembly/WASI embedders.
Currently this port passes basic and bootstrap test suites not using
the Thread API.

!(https://i.imgur.com/opCgKy2.png)

### Background

[WebAssembly (Wasm)](https://webassembly.org/) was originally
introduced to run programs safely and fast in web browsers. But its
objective - running programs efficiently with security on various
environment - is long wanted not only for web but also by general
applications.

[WASI (The WebAssembly System Interface)](https://wasi.dev/) is
designed for such use cases. Though such applications need to
communicate with operating systems, WebAssembly runs on a virtual
machine which didn't have a system interface. WASI standardizes it.

WebAssembly/WASI support in Ruby intends to leverage those projects.
It enables Ruby developers to write applications which run on such
promised platforms.

### Use case

This support encourages developers to utilize CRuby in a WebAssembly
environment. An example use case is [TryRuby
playground](TryRuby playground)'s CRuby support.
Now you can try original CRuby in your web browser.

### Technical points

Today’s WASI and WebAssembly itself is missing some features to
implement Fiber, exception, and GC because it’s still evolving, and
also for security reasons. So CRuby fills the gap by using Asyncify,
which is a binary transformation technique to control execution in
userland.

In addition, we built [a VFS on top of
WASI](Getting Started with CRuby · kateinoigakukun/wasi-vfs Wiki · GitHub)
so that we can easily pack Ruby apps into a single .wasm file. This
makes distribution of Ruby apps a bit easier.

### Related links

* [Add WASI based WebAssembly support
#5407](Add WASI based WebAssembly support by kateinoigakukun · Pull Request #5407 · ruby/ruby · GitHub)
* [An Update on WebAssembly/WASI Support in
Ruby](An Update on WebAssembly/WASI Support in Ruby | by kateinoigakukun | ITNEXT)

## Production-ready YJIT

!(https://i.imgur.com/X9ulfac.png)

* YJIT is no longer experimental
    * Has been tested on production workloads for over a year and
proven to be quite stable.
* YJIT now supports both x86-64 and arm64/aarch64 CPUs on Linux,
MacOS, BSD and other UNIX platforms.
    * This release brings support for Apple M1/M2, AWS Graviton,
Raspberry Pi 4 and more.
* Building YJIT now requires Rust 1.58.0+. [[Feature #18481]]
    * In order to ensure that CRuby is built with YJIT, please install
`rustc` >= 1.58.0
      before running the `./configure` script.
    * Please reach out to the YJIT team should you run into any issues.
* The YJIT 3.2 release is faster than 3.1, and has about 1/3 as much
memory overhead.
  * Overall YJIT is 41% faster (geometric mean) than the Ruby
interpreter on [yjit-bench](GitHub - Shopify/yjit-bench: Set of benchmarks for the YJIT CRuby JIT compiler and other Ruby implementations.).
  * Physical memory for JIT code is lazily allocated. Unlike Ruby 3.1,
    the RSS of a Ruby process is minimized because virtual memory pages
    allocated by `--yjit-exec-mem-size` will not be mapped to physical
    memory pages until actually utilized by JIT code.
  * Introduce Code GC that frees all code pages when the memory consumption
    by JIT code reaches `--yjit-exec-mem-size`.
  * `RubyVM::YJIT.runtime_stats` returns Code GC metrics in addition to
    existing `inline_code_size` and `outlined_code_size` keys:
    `code_gc_count`, `live_page_count`, `freed_page_count`, and
`freed_code_size`.
* Most of the statistics produced by `RubyVM::YJIT.runtime_stats` are
now available in release builds.
    * Simply run ruby with `--yjit-stats` to compute and dump stats
(incurs some run-time overhead).
* YJIT is now optimized to take advantage of object shapes. [[Feature #18776]]
* Take advantage of finer-grained constant invalidation to invalidate
less code when defining new constants. [[Feature #18589]]
* The default `--yjit-exec-mem-size` is changed to 64 (MiB).
* The default `--yjit-call-threshold` is changed to 30.

## Regexp improvements against ReDoS

It is known that Regexp matching may take unexpectedly long. If your
code attempts to match a possibly inefficient Regexp against an
untrusted input, an attacker may exploit it for efficient Denial of
Service (so-called Regular expression DoS, or ReDoS).

We have introduced two improvements that significantly mitigate ReDoS.

### Improved Regexp matching algorithm

Since Ruby 3.2, Regexp's matching algorithm has been greatly improved
by using a memoization technique.

# This match takes 10 sec. in Ruby 3.1, and 0.003 sec. in Ruby 3.2

/^a*b?a*$/ =~ "a" * 50000 + "x"

!(https://cache.ruby-lang.org/pub/media/ruby320_regex_1.png)
!(https://cache.ruby-lang.org/pub/media/ruby320_regex_2.png)

The improved matching algorithm allows most Regexp matching (about 90%
in our experiments) to be completed in linear time.

(For preview users: this optimization may consume memory proportional
to the input length for each match. We expect no practical problems to
arise because this memory allocation is usually delayed, and a normal
Regexp match should consume at most 10 times as much memory as the
input length. If you run out of memory when matching Regexps in a
real-world application, please report it.)

The original proposal is https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/19104

### Regexp timeout

The optimization above cannot be applied to some kind of regular
expressions, such as those including advanced features (e.g.,
back-references or look-around), or with a huge fixed number of
repetitions. As a fallback measure, a timeout feature for Regexp
matches is also introduced.

Regexp.timeout = 1.0

/^a*b?a*()\1$/ =~ "a" * 50000 + "x"
#=> Regexp::TimeoutError is raised in one second

Note that `Regexp.timeout` is a global configuration. If you want to
use different timeout settings for some special Regexps, you may want
to use the `timeout` keyword for `Regexp.new`.

Regexp.timeout = 1.0

# This regexp has no timeout
long_time_re = Regexp.new("^a*b?a*()\1$", timeout: Float::INFINITY)

long_time_re =~ "a" * 50000 + "x" # never interrupted

The original proposal is https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17837

## Other Notable New Features

### SyntaxSuggest

* The feature of `syntax_suggest` (formerly `dead_end`) is integrated
into Ruby. This helps you find the position of errors such as missing
or superfluous `end`s, to get you back on your way faster, such as in
the following example:

  Unmatched `end', missing keyword (`do', `def`, `if`, etc.) ?

    1  class Dog
  > 2    defbark
  > 3    end
    4  end

  [[Feature #18159]]

### ErrorHighlight

* Now it points at the relevant argument(s) for TypeError and ArgumentError

test.rb:2:in `+': nil can't be coerced into Integer (TypeError)

sum = ary[0] + ary[1]
               ^^^^^^

### Language

* Anonymous rest and keyword rest arguments can now be passed as
  arguments, instead of just used in method parameters.
  [[Feature #18351]]

    ```ruby
    def foo(*)
      bar(*)
    end
    def baz(**)
      quux(**)
    end
    ```

* A proc that accepts a single positional argument and keywords will
  no longer autosplat. [[Bug #18633]]

  proc{|a, **k| a}.call([1, 2])
  # Ruby 3.1 and before
  # => 1
  # Ruby 3.2 and after
  # => [1, 2]

* Constant assignment evaluation order for constants set on explicit
  objects has been made consistent with single attribute assignment
  evaluation order. With this code:

    ```ruby
    foo::BAR = baz
    ```

  `foo` is now called before `baz`. Similarly, for multiple assignments
  to constants, left-to-right evaluation order is used. With this
  code:

    ```ruby
      foo1::BAR1, foo2::BAR2 = baz1, baz2
    ```

  The following evaluation order is now used:

  1. `foo1`
  2. `foo2`
  3. `baz1`
  4. `baz2`

  [[Bug #15928]]

* The find pattern is no longer experimental.
  [[Feature #18585]]

* Methods taking a rest parameter (like `*args`) and wishing to delegate keyword
  arguments through `foo(*args)` must now be marked with `ruby2_keywords`
  (if not already the case). In other words, all methods wishing to delegate
  keyword arguments through `*args` must now be marked with `ruby2_keywords`,
  with no exception. This will make it easier to transition to other ways of
  delegation once a library can require Ruby 3+. Previously, the
`ruby2_keywords`
  flag was kept if the receiving method took `*args`, but this was a bug and an
  inconsistency. A good technique to find potentially missing `ruby2_keywords`
  is to run the test suite, find the last method which must
  receive keyword arguments for each place where the test suite fails,
and use `puts nil, caller, nil` there. Then check that each
  method/block on the call chain which must delegate keywords is
correctly marked
  with `ruby2_keywords`. [[Bug #18625]] [[Bug #16466]]

    ```ruby
    def target(**kw)
    end

    # Accidentally worked without ruby2_keywords in Ruby 2.7-3.1, ruby2_keywords
    # needed in 3.2+. Just like (*args, **kwargs) or (...) would be needed on
    # both #foo and #bar when migrating away from ruby2_keywords.
    ruby2_keywords def bar(*args)
      target(*args)
    end

    ruby2_keywords def foo(*args)
      bar(*args)
    end

    foo(k: 1)
    ```

## Performance improvements

### MJIT

* The MJIT compiler is re-implemented in Ruby as `ruby_vm/mjit/compiler`.
* MJIT compiler is executed under a forked Ruby process instead of
  doing it in a native thread called MJIT worker. [[Feature #18968]]
    * As a result, Microsoft Visual Studio (MSWIN) is no longer supported.
* MinGW is no longer supported. [[Feature #18824]]
* Rename `--mjit-min-calls` to `--mjit-call-threshold`.
* Change default `--mjit-max-cache` back from 10000 to 100.

### PubGrub

* Bundler 2.4 now uses
[PubGrub](GitHub - jhawthorn/pub_grub: A ruby port of the PubGrub version solver) resolver instead of
[Molinillo](GitHub - CocoaPods/Molinillo: A generic dependency resolution algorithm.).

  * PubGrub is the next generation solving algorithm used by `pub`
package manager for the Dart programming language.
  * You may get different resolution result after this change. Please
report such cases to [RubyGems/Bundler
issues](Issues · rubygems/rubygems · GitHub)

* RubyGems still uses Molinillo resolver in Ruby 3.2. We plan to
replace it with PubGrub in the future.

## Other notable changes since 3.1

* Data
    * New core class to represent simple immutable value object. The class is
      similar to Struct and partially shares an implementation, but has more
      lean and strict API. [[Feature #16122]]

        ```ruby
        Measure = Data.define(:amount, :unit)
        distance = Measure.new(100, 'km') #=> #<data
Measure amount=100, unit="km">
        weight = Measure.new(amount: 50, unit: 'kg') #=> #<data
Measure amount=50, unit="kg">
        weight.with(amount: 40) #=> #<data
Measure amount=40, unit="kg">
        weight.amount #=> 50
        weight.amount = 40 #=>
NoMethodError: undefined method `amount='
        ```

* Hash
    * `Hash#shift` now always returns nil if the hash is
      empty, instead of returning the default value or
      calling the default proc. [[Bug #16908]]

* MatchData
    * `MatchData#byteoffset` has been added. [[Feature #13110]]

* Module
    * `Module.used_refinements` has been added. [[Feature #14332]]
    * `Module#refinements` has been added. [[Feature #12737]]
    * `Module#const_added` has been added. [[Feature #17881]]

* Proc
    * `Proc#dup` returns an instance of subclass. [[Bug #17545]]
    * `Proc#parameters` now accepts lambda keyword. [[Feature #15357]]

* Refinement
    * `Refinement#refined_class` has been added. [[Feature #12737]]

* RubyVM::AbstractSyntaxTree
    * Add `error_tolerant` option for `parse`, `parse_file` and `of`.
[[Feature #19013]]
      With this option
        1. SyntaxError is suppressed
        2. AST is returned for invalid input
        3. `end` is complemented when a parser reaches to the end of
input but `end` is insufficient
        4. `end` is treated as keyword based on indent

        ```ruby
        # Without error_tolerant option
        root = RubyVM::AbstractSyntaxTree.parse(<<~RUBY)
        def m
          a = 10
          if
        end
        RUBY
        # => <internal:ast>:33:in `parse': syntax error, unexpected
`end' (SyntaxError)

        # With error_tolerant option
        root = RubyVM::AbstractSyntaxTree.parse(<<~RUBY, error_tolerant: true)
        def m
          a = 10
          if
        end
        RUBY
        p root # => #<RubyVM::AbstractSyntaxTree::Node:SCOPE@1:0-4:3>

        # `end` is treated as keyword based on indent
        root = RubyVM::AbstractSyntaxTree.parse(<<~RUBY, error_tolerant: true)
        module Z
          class Foo
            foo.
          end

          def bar
          end
        end
        RUBY
        p root.children[-1].children[-1].children[-1].children[-2..-1]
        # => [#<RubyVM::AbstractSyntaxTree::Node:CLASS@2:2-4:5>,
#<RubyVM::AbstractSyntaxTree::Node:DEFN@6:2-7:5>]
        ```

    * Add `keep_tokens` option for `parse`, `parse_file` and `of`.
[[Feature #19070]]

        ```ruby
        root = RubyVM::AbstractSyntaxTree.parse("x = 1 + 2", keep_tokens: true)
        root.tokens # => [[0, :tIDENTIFIER, "x", [1, 0, 1, 1]], [1,
:tSP, " ", [1, 1, 1, 2]], ...]
        root.tokens.map{_1[2]}.join # => "x = 1 + 2"
        ```

* Set
    * Set is now available as a builtin class without the need for
`require "set"`. [[Feature #16989]]
      It is currently autoloaded via the `Set` constant or a call to
`Enumerable#to_set`.

* String
    * `String#byteindex` and `String#byterindex` have been added.
[[Feature #13110]]
    * Update Unicode to Version 15.0.0 and Emoji Version 15.0.
[[Feature #18639]]
      (also applies to Regexp)
    * `String#bytesplice` has been added. [[Feature #18598]]

* Struct
    * A Struct class can also be initialized with keyword arguments
      without `keyword_init: true` on `Struct.new` [[Feature #16806]]

        ```ruby
        Post = Struct.new(:id, :name)
        Post.new(1, "hello") #=> #<struct Post id=1, name="hello">
        # From Ruby 3.2, the following code also works without
keyword_init: true.
        Post.new(id: 1, name: "hello") #=> #<struct Post id=1, name="hello">
        ```

## Compatibility issues

Note: Excluding feature bug fixes.

### Removed constants

The following deprecated constants are removed.

* `Fixnum` and `Bignum` [[Feature #12005]]
* `Random::DEFAULT` [[Feature #17351]]
* `Struct::Group`
* `Struct::Passwd`

### Removed methods

The following deprecated methods are removed.

* `Dir.exists?` [[Feature #17391]]
* `File.exists?` [[Feature #17391]]
* `Kernel#=~` [[Feature #15231]]
* `Kernel#taint`, `Kernel#untaint`, `Kernel#tainted?`
  [[Feature #16131]]
* `Kernel#trust`, `Kernel#untrust`, `Kernel#untrusted?`
  [[Feature #16131]]

## Stdlib compatibility issues

### No longer bundle 3rd party sources

* We no longer bundle 3rd party sources like `libyaml`, `libffi`.

    * libyaml source has been removed from psych. You may need to
install `libyaml-dev` with Ubuntu/Debian platform. The package name is
different for each platform.

    * Bundled libffi source is also removed from `fiddle`

* Psych and fiddle supported static builds with specific versions of
libyaml and libffi sources. You can build psych with libyaml-0.2.5
like this:

    ```bash
    $ ./configure --with-libyaml-source-dir=/path/to/libyaml-0.2.5
    ```

    And you can build fiddle with libffi-3.4.4 like this:

    ```bash
    $ ./configure --with-libffi-source-dir=/path/to/libffi-3.4.4
    ```

  [[Feature #18571]]

## C API updates

### Updated C APIs

The following APIs are updated.

* PRNG update
  * `rb_random_interface_t` updated and versioned.
    Extension libraries which use this interface and built for older versions.
    Also `init_int32` function needs to be defined.

### Removed C APIs

The following deprecated APIs are removed.

* `rb_cData` variable.
* "taintedness" and "trustedness" functions. [[Feature #16131]]

## Standard library updates

* Bundler

    * Add --ext=rust support to bundle gem for creating simple gems
with Rust extensions.
      [[GH-rubygems-6149]]
    * Make cloning git repos faster [[GH-rubygems-4475]]

* RubyGems

    * Add mswin support for cargo builder. [[GH-rubygems-6167]]

* ERB

    * `ERB::Util.html_escape` is made faster than `CGI.escapeHTML`.
        * It no longer allocates a String object when no character
needs to be escaped.
        * It skips calling `#to_s` method when an argument is already a String.
        * `ERB::Escape.html_escape` is added as an alias to
`ERB::Util.html_escape`,
          which has not been monkey-patched by Rails.

* IRB

    * debug.gem integration commands have been added: `debug`, `break`, `catch`,
      `next`, `delete`, `step`, `continue`, `finish`, `backtrace`, `info`
        * They work even if you don't have `gem "debug"` in your Gemfile.
        * See also: [What's new in Ruby 3.2's
IRB?](What's new in Ruby 3.2's IRB?)
    * More Pry-like commands and features have been added.
        * `edit` and `show_cmds` (like Pry's `help`) are added.
        * `ls` takes `-g` or `-G` option to filter out outputs.
        * `show_source` is aliased from `$` and accepts unquoted inputs.
        * `whereami` is aliased from `@`.

* The following default gems are updated.

    * RubyGems 3.4.1
    * abbrev 0.1.1
    * benchmark 0.2.1
    * bigdecimal 3.1.3
    * bundler 2.4.1
    * cgi 0.3.6
    * csv 3.2.6
    * date 3.3.3
    * delegate 0.3.0
    * did_you_mean 1.6.3
    * digest 3.1.1
    * drb 2.1.1
    * english 0.7.2
    * erb 4.0.2
    * error_highlight 0.5.1
    * etc 1.4.2
    * fcntl 1.0.2
    * fiddle 1.1.1
    * fileutils 1.7.0
    * forwardable 1.3.3
    * getoptlong 0.2.0
    * io-console 0.6.0
    * io-nonblock 0.2.0
    * io-wait 0.3.0
    * ipaddr 1.2.5
    * irb 1.6.2
    * json 2.6.3
    * logger 1.5.3
    * mutex_m 0.1.2
    * net-http 0.3.2
    * net-protocol 0.2.1
    * nkf 0.1.2
    * open-uri 0.3.0
    * open3 0.1.2
    * openssl 3.1.0
    * optparse 0.3.1
    * ostruct 0.5.5
    * pathname 0.2.1
    * pp 0.4.0
    * pstore 0.1.2
    * psych 5.0.1
    * racc 1.6.2
    * rdoc 6.5.0
    * readline-ext 0.1.5
    * reline 0.3.2
    * resolv 0.2.2
    * resolv-replace 0.1.1
    * securerandom 0.2.2
    * set 1.0.3
    * stringio 3.0.4
    * strscan 3.0.5
    * syntax_suggest 1.0.2
    * syslog 0.1.1
    * tempfile 0.1.3
    * time 0.2.1
    * timeout 0.3.1
    * tmpdir 0.1.3
    * tsort 0.1.1
    * un 0.2.1
    * uri 0.12.0
    * weakref 0.1.2
    * win32ole 1.8.9
    * yaml 0.2.1
    * zlib 3.0.0

* The following bundled gems are updated.

    * minitest 5.16.3
    * power_assert 2.0.3
    * test-unit 3.5.7
    * net-ftp 0.2.0
    * net-imap 0.3.3
    * net-pop 0.1.2
    * net-smtp 0.3.3
    * rbs 2.8.2
    * typeprof 0.21.3
    * debug 1.7.1

See GitHub releases like [GitHub Releases of
logger](Releases · ruby/logger · GitHub) or changelog for
details of the default gems or bundled gems.

See [NEWS](ruby/NEWS.md at v3_2_0 · ruby/ruby · GitHub)
or [commit logs](Comparing v3_1_0...v3_2_0 · ruby/ruby · GitHub)
for more details.

With those changes, [3048 files changed, 218253 insertions(+), 131067
deletions(-)](Comparing v3_1_0...v3_2_0 · ruby/ruby · GitHub)
since Ruby 3.1.0!

Merry Christmas, Happy Holidays, and enjoy programming with Ruby 3.2!

## Download

* <https://cache.ruby-lang.org/pub/ruby/3.2/ruby-3.2.0.tar.gz&gt;

      SIZE: 20440715
      SHA1: fb4ab2ceba8bf6a5b9bc7bf7cac945cc94f94c2b
      SHA256: daaa78e1360b2783f98deeceb677ad900f3a36c0ffa6e2b6b19090be77abc272
      SHA512: 94203051d20475b95a66660016721a0457d7ea57656a9f16cdd4264d8aa6c4cd8ea2fab659082611bfbd7b00ebbcf0391e883e2ebf384e4fab91869e0a877d35

* <https://cache.ruby-lang.org/pub/ruby/3.2/ruby-3.2.0.tar.xz&gt;

      SIZE: 15058364
      SHA1: bcdae07183d66fd902cb7bf995545a472d2fefea
      SHA256: d2f4577306e6dd932259693233141e5c3ec13622c95b75996541b8d5b68b28b4
      SHA512: 733ecc6709470ee16916deeece9af1c76220ae95d17b2681116aff7f381d99bc3124b1b11b1c2336b2b29e468e91b90f158d5ae5fca810c6cf32a0b6234ae08e

* <https://cache.ruby-lang.org/pub/ruby/3.2/ruby-3.2.0.zip&gt;

      SIZE: 24583271
      SHA1: 581ec7b9289c2a85abf4f41c93993ecaa5cf43a5
      SHA256: cca9ddbc958431ff77f61948cb67afa569f01f99c9389d2bbedfa92986c9ef09
      SHA512: b7d2753825cc0667e8bb391fc7ec59a53c3db5fa314e38eee74b6511890b585ac7515baa2ddac09e2c6b6c42b9221c82e040af5b39c73e980fbd3b1bc622c99d

## What is Ruby

Ruby was first developed by Matz (Yukihiro Matsumoto) in 1993,
and is now developed as Open Source. It runs on multiple platforms
and is used all over the world especially for web development.

[Feature #12005]: Feature #12005: Unify Fixnum and Bignum into Integer - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #12084]: Feature #12084: `Class#instance` - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #12655]: Feature #12655: Accessing the method visibility - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #12737]: Feature #12737: Module#defined_refinements - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #13110]: Feature #13110: Byte-based operations for String - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #14332]: Feature #14332: Module.used_refinements to list refinement modules - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #15231]: Feature #15231: Remove `Object#=~` - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #15357]: Feature #15357: Proc#parameters returns incomplete type information - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Bug #15928]: Bug #15928: Constant declaration does not conform to JIS 3017:2013 - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #16122]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/16122
[Feature #16131]: Feature #16131: Remove $SAFE, taint and trust - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Bug #16466]: Bug #16466: `*args -> *args` delegation should be warned when the last hash has a `ruby2_keywords` flag - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #16663]: Feature #16663: Add block or filtered forms of Kernel#caller to allow early bail-out - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #16806]: Feature #16806: Struct#initialize accepts keyword arguments too by default - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Bug #16889]: Bug #16889: TracePoint.enable { ... } also activates the TracePoint for other threads, even outside the block - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Bug #16908]: Bug #16908: Strange behaviour of Hash#shift when used with `default_proc`. - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #16989]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/16989
[Feature #17351]: Feature #17351: Deprecate Random::DEFAULT - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #17391]: Feature #17391: How about removing File.exists? - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Bug #17545]: Bug #17545: Calling dup on a subclass of Proc returns a Proc and not the subclass - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Bug #17767]: Bug #17767: `Cloned ENV` inconsistently returns `ENV` or `self` - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #17837]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/17837
[Feature #17881]: Feature #17881: Add a Module#const_added callback - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #18033]: Feature #18033: Time.new to parse a string - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #18159]: Feature #18159: Integrate functionality of syntax_suggest gem into Ruby - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #18239]: Feature #18239: Variable Width Allocation: Strings - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #18351]: Feature #18351: Support anonymous rest and keyword rest argument forwarding - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Feature #18367]: Feature #18367: Stop the interpreter from escaping error messages - Ruby master - Ruby Issue Tracking System
[Bug #18435]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18435
[Feature #18462]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18462
[Feature #18481]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18481
[Bug #18487]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18487
[Feature #18564]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18564
[Feature #18571]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18571
[Feature #18585]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18585
[Feature #18589]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18589
[Feature #18595]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18595
[Feature #18598]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18598
[Bug #18625]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18625
[Feature #18630]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18630
[Bug #18633]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18633
[Feature #18639]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18639
[Feature #18685]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18685
[Bug #18729]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18729
[Bug #18751]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18751
[Feature #18774]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18774
[Feature #18776]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18776
[Bug #18782]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18782
[Feature #18788]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18788
[Feature #18798]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18798
[Feature #18809]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18809
[Feature #18821]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18821
[Feature #18822]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18822
[Feature #18824]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18824
[Feature #18832]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18832
[Feature #18875]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18875
[Feature #18925]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18925
[Feature #18944]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18944
[Feature #18949]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18949
[Feature #18968]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/18968
[Feature #19008]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/19008
[Feature #19013]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/19013
[Feature #19026]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/19026
[Feature #19036]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/19036
[Feature #19060]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/19060
[Feature #19070]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/19070
[Feature #19071]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/19071
[Feature #19078]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/19078
[Bug #19087]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/19087
[Bug #19100]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/19100
[Feature #19104]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/19104
[Feature #19135]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/19135
[Feature #19138]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/19138
[Feature #19194]: https://bugs.ruby-lang.org/issues/19194
[Molinillo]: GitHub - CocoaPods/Molinillo: A generic dependency resolution algorithm.
[PubGrub]: GitHub - jhawthorn/pub_grub: A ruby port of the PubGrub version solver
[GH-net-protocol-14]: https://github.com/ruby/net-protocol/pull/14
[GH-pathname-20]: https://github.com/ruby/pathname/pull/20
[GH-6791]: https://github.com/ruby/ruby/pull/6791
[GH-6868]: https://github.com/ruby/ruby/pull/6868
[GH-rubygems-4475]: https://github.com/rubygems/rubygems/pull/4475
[GH-rubygems-6149]: https://github.com/rubygems/rubygems/pull/6149
[GH-rubygems-6167]: https://github.com/rubygems/rubygems/pull/6167
[sec-156615]: https://hackerone.com/reports/156615
[CVE-2021-33621]:
https://www.ruby-lang.org/en/news/2022/11/22/http-response-splitting-in-cgi-cve-2021-33621/
[wasm/README.md]: https://github.com/ruby/ruby/blob/master/wasm/README.md
[ruby.wasm]: https://github.com/ruby/ruby.wasm

···

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