Ruby 2.6.0 Released

We are pleased to announce the release of Ruby 2.6.0.

It introduces a number of new features and performance improvements,
most notably:

* A new JIT compiler.
* The `RubyVM::AbstractSyntaxTree` module.

## JIT [Experimental]

Ruby 2.6 introduces an initial implementation of a JIT (Just-In-Time) compiler.

The JIT compiler aims to improve the performance of Ruby programs.
Unlike traditional JIT compilers which operate in-process, Ruby's JIT
compiler writes out C code to disk and spawns a common C compiler to
generate native code. For more details about it, see the [MJIT
organization by Vladimir

In order to enable the JIT compiler, specify `--jit` on the command
line or in the `$RUBYOPT` environment variable. Specifying
`--jit-verbose=1` will cause the JIT compiler to print additional
information. Read the output of `ruby --help` or [the
for other options.

The JIT compiler is supported when Ruby is built by GCC, Clang, or
Microsoft VC++, which needs to be available at runtime.

As of Ruby 2.6.0, we have achieved [1.7x faster
compared to Ruby 2.5 on a CPU-intensive, non-trivial benchmark called
[Optcarrot]( However, it is still
experimental and many other memory-intensive workloads like Rails
might not benefit from it at the moment. For more details, see [Ruby
2.6 JIT - Progress and

Stay tuned for the new age of Ruby's performance.

## `RubyVM::AbstractSyntaxTree` [Experimental]

Ruby 2.6 introduces the `RubyVM::AbstractSyntaxTree` module. **Future
compatibility of this module is not guaranteed**.

This module has a `parse` method, which parses the given string as
Ruby code and returns the AST (Abstract Syntax Tree) nodes of the
code. The `parse_file` method opens and parses the given file as Ruby
code and returns AST nodes.

The `RubyVM::AbstractSyntaxTree::Node` class is also introduced. You
can get source location and children nodes from `Node` objects. This
feature is experimental.

## Other Notable New Features

* Add an alias of `Kernel#yield_self` named `#then`. [[Feature

* Constant names may start with a non-ASCII capital letter. [[Feature

* Introduce endless ranges. [[Feature

  An endless range, `(1..)`, works as if it has no end. Here are some
typical use cases:

      ary[1..] # identical to ary[1..-1]
without magical -1
      (1..).each {|index| ... } # enumerates values starting
from index 1 {|elem, index| ... } # ary.each.with_index(1) { ... }

* Add `Enumerable#chain` and `Enumerator#+` [[Feature

* Add function composition operators `<<` and `>>` to `Proc` and
`Method`. [[Feature #6284]](

      f = proc{|x| x + 2}
      g = proc{|x| x * 3}
      (f << g).call(3) # -> 11; identical to f(g(3))
      (f >> g).call(3) # -> 15; identical to g(f(3))

* Add `Binding#source_location`. [[Feature

  This method returns the source location of the binding, a 2-element
array of `__FILE__` and `__LINE__`. Technically speaking, this is
identical to `eval("[__FILE__, __LINE__]", binding)`. However, we are
planning to change this behavior so that `Kernel#eval` ignores
binding's source location [[Bug
#4352]]( As such, it is
recommended to use `Binding#source_location` instead of `Kernel#eval`.

* Add an `exception:` option to `Kernel#system` which causes it to
raise an exception on failure instead of returning `false`. [[Feature

* Add a oneshot mode to `Coverage`

  * This mode checks "whether each line was executed at least once or
not", instead of "how many times each line was executed". A hook for
each line is fired only once, and once it is fired the hook flag will
be removed, i.e., it runs with zero overhead.
  * Add `oneshot_lines:` keyword argument to Coverage.start.
  * Add `stop:` and `clear:` keyword arguments to Coverage.result. If
`clear` is true, it clears the counters to zero. If `stop` is true,
it disables coverage measurement.
  * Coverage.line_stub is a simple helper function that creates the
"stub" of line coverage from a given source code.

* Add `FileUtils#cp_lr`. It works just like cp_r but links instead of
copies. [[Feature #4189]](

## Performance improvements

* Speed up `Proc#call` by removing the temporary allocation for `$SAFE`.
  [[Feature #14318]](

  We have observed a 1.4x peformance improvement in the `lc_fizzbuzz`
benchmark that calls `Proc#call` numerous times. [[Bug

* Speed up `` when `block` is passed in as a block
parameter. [[Feature #14330]](

  Combined with improvements around block handling introduced in Ruby
2.5, block evaluation now performs 2.6x faster in a micro-benchmark in
Ruby 2.6. [[Feature #14045]](

* Transient Heap (`theap`) is introduced. [[Bug
#14858]]( [[Feature

  `theap` is managed heap for short-living memory objects which are
pointed by specific classes (`Array`, `Hash`, `Object`, and `Struct`).
Making small and short-living Hash object is 2x faster. With rdoc
benchmark, we observed 6-7% performance improvement.

* Native implementations (`arm32`, `arm64`, `ppc64le`, `win32`,
`win64`, `x86`, `amd64`) of coroutines to improve context switching
performance of Fiber significantly. [[Feature

  `Fiber.yield` and `Fiber#resume` is about 5x faster on 64-bit Linux.
Fiber intensive programs can expect up to 5% improvement overall.

## Other notable changes since 2.5

* `$SAFE` is now a process global state and it can be set back to `0`.
[[Feature #14250]](

* Passing `safe_level` to `` is deprecated. `trim_mode` and
`eoutvar` arguments have been changed to keyword arguments. [[Feature

* Unicode support is updated to version 11. We have plans to add
support Unicode version 12 and 12.1 in a future TEENY release of Ruby
2.6. This will include support for the [new Japenese

* Merge RubyGems 3.0.1. The `--ri` and `--rdoc` options have been
removed. Please use `--document` and `--no-document` options instead.

* [Bundler]( is now installed as a
default gem.

* In exception handling blocks, `else` without `rescue` now causes a
syntax error. [EXPERIMENTAL][[Feature

See [NEWS]( or [commit
logs]( for more

With those changes, [6376 files changed, 227364 insertions(+), 51599
since Ruby 2.5.0!

Merry Christmas, Happy Holidays, and enjoy programming with Ruby 2.6!

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